As 大魔王 😈 plus Than 用法大全

因為 As 這個字超級常用,導致其用法不停演化並出現相當多的特例,最後成為了英語測驗人人恐懼的魔王。本文整理並蒐集各種 As 相關用法與新聞實例,佐以筆者摘要,一併比較相似用法的 than ,供讀者理解並熟悉。

As 的基本用法

as 總共有三個用法: 像(連接詞 conj.)、以…的身份(介詞 prep.)、一樣地…(副詞 adv.)。


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  • as + clause = 像(連接詞)。例如 Please log in as I do. = 登入像我做的一樣。本句 as 是連接詞,後面應接句子,所以無需把 I 變型。影片中 Adam 指出美國人口語常把 like 也當成連接詞來用,然而這是錯誤的,不建議出現在寫作中。正確的用法是 like + noun = 像(介詞)。例如 Please log in like me. = 登入像我一樣。本句注意到因為 I 前面有介詞,所以應轉變為受詞型態的 me。
  • as + noun = 以…的身份(介詞)。例如 Please log in as me. = 登入以我的身份。本句因為 I 前面有介詞,所以應轉變為受詞型態的 me。將此例句拿去與連接詞用法的 as 比較,可以發現意思完全不同!
  • as + adj/adv = 一樣地…(副詞)。例如 He was angry, but she was just as angry. = 他很生氣但她也「一樣地」生氣。

連接詞 as 後的「助動詞」

as 後面常常可以省略一大堆東西,然而請注意到一個句子裡最重要的「動作」省略後,應使用助動詞來取代。例如 Please log in as the boy does. = 登入「像」那個男孩做的一樣。Please log in as the boy. = 登入「以那個男孩的身份」。注意到如果忘了寫 does 那麼 as 就直接接了名詞 boy 從而變成了「介詞」的 as 意思也就不一樣了!

助動詞除了能取代動作之外,還能加上其他意思。例如 Police officers are scared to do their jobs as they should (do their jobs). = 警察害怕去做他們的工作像他們應該的。本句可以發現 should 除了取代了 do their jobs 這個動作之外,還加上了一層「應該」的意思。

than 的用法

than 與 as 的概念基本上相同,然而在規則上自由許多。

than = 比(連接詞/介詞)She is younger than I am. = She is younger than me.

可以看到上圖 than 若當作「連接詞」。那原句就是 Humans eat more bananas than monkeys (do). = 人類吃的香蕉比猴子 (吃的香蕉) 多。此時因為連接詞的特性 monkey 對應到的是 human。然而,若是把 than 當作「介詞」,那 monkey 對應到的就變成是 banana。也就是說 Humans eat more bananas than monkeys. = 人類吃的「香蕉比猴子」還要多。也因此,下方的文字表示「我不記得我吃過猴子」,非常好笑。

As 省略 5w1h 範例集

as (what) is often supposed = 如同常常被假設的

more than (what) is listed = 比被列上去的還多。可發現這邊的 than 與 as 用法一模一樣。

as (what is) often said = 如同常常被說到的。注意到被動語氣連 is 都省略掉了也是可行的!

easier than (what is) done = 說比做簡單。可發現這邊的 than 與 as 用法一模一樣。

as (what) the president said = 如同總統說的。

less than (what) it promised = 比它承諾的少。可發現這邊的 than 與 as 用法一模一樣。

as (what) is often the case = 如同常常發生的狀況。特別注意到本句的 be 動詞不用來做「被動語氣」,而是直接翻譯成「是」。這種狀況若連 is 省掉語感就會不佳,所以不省 is。

As 慣用法

as (what) it turns out = 如同事後表明或證實的那樣。這個用法帶有 surprising 的語氣

as (how) it happens = 如同它發生的那樣 = 其實呢。這個用法相當常見,然而意思很難記。字典裡提到:used to tell someone something that is surprising, interesting, or useful

As 副詞用法

副詞 as + Adj/Adv = 同樣地 = to the same degree or amount

  • I can’t run fast. VS I can’t run as fast.。前句描述不能跑快,後句則是不能「同樣地快」。注意此為副詞 as + 副詞 fast。
  • I don’t have much time. VS I don’t have as much time. 前句描述沒有很多時間。後句則是沒有「同樣地多的時間」。注意此為副詞 as + 形容詞 much。
  • He was angry, but she was just as angry. 他生氣,她則是「一樣地生氣的」。注意此為副詞 as + 形容詞 angry。

介詞 as + (being) Noun / Adj = 以 … 狀態/角色 = in the form/role of

  • He has a job as (being) an editor. 透過介詞 as 用 editor 修飾整句。
  • They described the situation as (being) a disaster. 透過介詞 as 用 disaster 修飾整句。
  • He is described as (being) in his late teens. 透過介詞 as 用 in his late teens 修飾整句。
  • Do think of this problem as (being) a challenge! 透過介詞 as 用 challenge 修飾整句。
  • The problem is thought of as (being) serious. 透過介詞 as 用 serious 修飾整句。

介詞 as 也可以和其他介詞一樣拿到句首。讀者可以將其與連接詞前移的例子比較一下。

keynote speaker = 主講人。keynote = 基調。

regard sth as (being) Noun = 以 … 對待

interpret sth as (being) Adj = 以 … 理解

see sth as (being) Noun/Adj = 以 … 看待。本新聞接形容詞&名詞的例句同時存在例圖中!chancy = 冒險的;有風險的。

As … As 的 Combo 用法!

例如 Please log in as soon as you get home. = 請登入和你到家時一樣地早。本句中文雖然會翻譯成「一…就…」,然而筆者建議千萬別這樣去學英文。應該要像例句一樣,去了解這個英文的本質上到底在說什麼。前面 as soon 的 as 接了形容詞 soon = 早、快。所以第一個 as 是副詞。然而第二個 as 請記住它是「像」的意思,所以用法是連接詞,連接了一整句話。

副詞 as Adj/Adv + 介詞 as (being) Noun = 多/高達。

此用法的特色是雙 as 加不加其實沒差。例如 I’ve heard of people paying as much as (being) 20$ for popcorn at a movie. 從介詞 as 的意思來看,本句 as 20$ 的意思是「以20美金的狀態」,仔細觀查會發現這是句廢話!而講者硬把雙 as 加進去後,真正的功能是強化語氣而已。

本句注意到 20% 是個名詞,所以二號 as 是介詞。此外 as much as 整個拿掉也不影響句意,放進來只是為了強化語氣。

副詞 as + Adj/Adv + 連接詞 as = 一樣地 … 如同 … 一樣。此用法有四個特殊規則如下:

  1. 二號 as 省略前置逗號。
  2. 可省 as 後重複出現字。
  3. 省略 5w1h。
  4. 超級省略(下一章)。

例如 The fabric is as soft as silk is soft. 二號 as 是連接詞,規定要加完整一的句話,且和其他連接詞不同,不加前置逗號(1省逗號)。此外 is soft 重複了所以可省(2省重複)。結果就變成 The fabric is as soft as silk. 這邊特別注意,最後的句子看起來竟然像是「介系詞」用法?啍啍,這就是大魔王邪惡的地方 😈

筆者這邊試著先假設其是介系詞用法,那麼原型便是 The fabric is as soft as (being) silk (X) 中文意思是「一樣的軟以 silk 的狀態」。然而,因為 fabric 是不能以 silk 的狀態存在的,這兩個東西只能「很像」,所以必需使用連接詞 as = 如同 … 一樣。故得證二號 as 不是介系詞。讀者應特別注意這點,才不會被後續複雜的用法搞混。

本句利用 as 的特殊省略規則把 what 省掉(3省 5w1h)。二號 as 後的原型是 as bad as the sea-level estimates that we thought。而 sth that 可以合成 what,就變成 as bad as what we thought。

本句二號 as 沒有把 5w1h 的 how 給省略掉。其原因在於 how much 是一組的,若只省了 how 意思及文法就都不對了。

本例句二號 as 後的原型為 as you can run fast。因為動詞一個是 walk 一個是 run,因此只能省略重複的 fast。

本句為 as Adv as 的用法範例。二號 as 後面原型是 as modern mammals and birds grew fast。其中重複的 grew fast 被魔王 as 連接詞給省略了。mammals = 哺乳動物

本句為 as Adj as 的用法範例。二號 as 後面原型是 as the island of Ireland is large. 然後將重複的 is large 省掉。

本句 Loving your country 是一個動名詞子句,可以被視為一個名詞子句,被拿來與另一個名詞子句 loving your parents 做比較。第二個 as 後面的原型是 as loving your parents is natural 然而把重複的 is natural 省了。

副詞 as Adj + a/an Noun + 連接詞 as

雙 as 中間若要插上名詞,必需把冠詞 (a/an) 移到奇怪的位置,以讓副詞 as 可直接修飾 Adj。

本句中文的翻譯是「警犬是一樣地大的部份像警察」。正常來說應該是 a big part,然而在雙 as 中間應移動冠詞,以利副詞 as 直接修飾形容詞 big。

雙 as 中間若有「形+名」,應把冠詞放到形名中間。然而本句名詞是不可數,就不用冠詞。

雙 as 中間若有「形+名」,應把冠詞放到形名中間。然而本句名詞是複合名詞,也不用冠詞。

雙 as 中間放名詞的狀況,有時會需要使用 the same 取代第一個 as 語感比較好。本句注意到二號位的 as 是連接詞,因此不可寫 as her,而是應該如圖寫 as she (is)。最後,本句原型其實是 He is (of) the same age。省略 of 的用法可參考 → Of 的特殊用法&慣用語🔗 ←

超級省略 As & If, While, When

這四個字可以把主詞動詞都省掉,只留下一個「副詞、介詞、形容詞」。

as before = as it is before。此用法留下副詞 before 修飾 it is。而 it 代指前面印度人喜歡麥當勞的狀況。

as before = as it is before。此用法留下介詞 before。

as possible = as it is possible。

as explained = as it is explained。被動式形態的形容詞也 ok。

if successful = if it is successful。 additive = 添加劑。rangeland = 牧場。trough = 槽 ← 這個字長的很像 through,發音則很像中文。

if interested = if you are interested。

if interested 後面還可以接 in

if needed = if it is needed = 如果需要。 as needed = as it is needed = 如同所需要的。

while pregnant = while one is pregnant

when available = when it is available

if appropriate = if it is appropriate = 適當的話

if severe enough = if it is severe enough 超級省略還可以加一點修飾。 cosmetic = 表面的

if given too much (sth) = if it is given too much food。 dewormer = 驅蟲劑

As Well As 的故事

as well as = 以及、此外 = in addition to = not only but also。 注意,as well as 常常被拿來和 and 替換以避免一直重複使用 and。然而,事實上 as well as 的意思不全等於 and,用法也不同。

注意到本句的 as well as 雖然意思和 and 相同,然而後面的動詞使用了「單數 is」。這是因為 as well as 本意其實是 in addition to 而不是 and,用法自然也和 and 不同。

除了用法,在強調的事情上 and 也和 as well as 有所不同。例如以下句子:

  • She has a fitness instructor job and is a full-time student.
  • She is not only a full-time student but she also has a fitness instructor job.
  • She has a fitness instructor job in addition to being a full-time student.
  • She has a fitness instructor job as well as being a full-time student.

以上四句除了 and 之外,皆在強調 fitness instructor。用法方面 as well as 則是和 in addition to 相同。注意到這邊的 to 比較特別,它並非不定詞前的 to ,而是要接「名詞或動名詞」的那種介系詞 to。

可以發現本句 as well as 前面強調俱體的東西,而後面不想多說,所以模糊地講了 general 的東西。此外,與 and 連用也是本句的特色。

本句利用逗號進一步 de-emphasize 健康團體。其心理的 OS 是:「還有那個什麼來著,喔對了,健康團體」。在語氣上,也要停頓一下,做出那種順帶一提的感覺。

本句因為把 as well as 提到前面,所以要像 in addition to 一樣加個逗號。若放在後面的話就不一定需要。此外,當 as well as 遇到動詞時,也要像 in addition to 接 V-ing。

若遇到不定詞 to 在 as well as 前,那用法就會比較複雜。例如 He told me to work hard as well as rest well. 本句 rest 和 work 都是當 told me to 的不定詞補語,所以要使用「原型動詞」。相對地 He told me to work hard as well as patting me on the back. 本句 patting 並非是前面 to 的補語,語意上 patting 和 told 是相對的,所以要和 in addition to + noun 的用法一樣,使用 V-ing。

這個例句的 perform 是與 teach 相對,都是當作 enable him to 的補語,所以應使用原型。

這個例句 as well as 後的 waste 是與 affect 相對(而不是與 teach 相對),因此仍使用 ing。如果使用原型 waste 的話,那意思就會很很搞笑,變成「影響了他教學以及浪費時間的能力」。

本句的 as well as 後面有「主詞 + 助動詞」,然後省略了動詞。在這種「接了整句」的狀況下 as well as 的意思變成「一樣好」,讀者應特別注意!

as well = too

as well = also

might as well = 不妨

just as well = 幸好。這個神奇的用法,詳見 → Cambridge ←

just as well = 和…一樣好。注意到 just as well 有時就只是簡單的副詞 as 用法。本句指用香蕉燙頭髮都能和用電捲棒 work 地一樣好。

百變 As 用法錦集

as if/though = 仿彿。

分為假設語氣與推測語氣。例如 He talks as if/though he knew it. 本句時態前移變過去式,變成假設語氣,暗指他根本不知道。It looks as if/though it’s going to snow tomorrow. 本句時態正常,屬於推測語氣,暗指好像會,但也可能不會。關於假設語氣可參考 → 假設 & 條件語氣 Subjunctive + Conditional Mood🔗 ←

almost/nearly as = 幾乎如同 … 一樣。not nearly as = 完全不同於 …。

nearly 本身帶有特殊的意思,因此很容易被 EFL 誤解。例如 I’m almost/nearly as old as my husband. = 我幾乎如同老公一樣老。否定句時,I’m not almost as old as my husband. = 我不幾乎如同老公一樣老。本句暗指70 vs 80 的差距。然而 I’m not nearly as old as my husband. = 我完全不同於老公一樣的老,暗指 50 vs 80 的差距。

isn’t nearly as much evidence 本句指證句完全不同於 oat milk 一樣多的證據,暗指證據極少。

serve/act as (being) Noun = 以 … 的狀態作用。此為介詞 as 的用法。diving mecca = 潛水麥加(聖地)。

開頭 (as) Adv / Adj as = 儘管。這個例句常常被用於禮貌地拒絕(如新聞的標題所述)。

本句為「儘管」開頭並省略 as 的用法。exuberant = 精力充沛的、茂盛的。flora = 植物群。

multiplier + as Adj/Adv as + sth。 three-quarters = 四分之三。其他常見的倍數用語如 half/twice/thrice/four times…。

注意到此用法的 Adj 要放在冠詞前。

複數名詞就不用管冠詞了。

as far as … be concerned = 就 … 來說。此用法詳細可參考 → 「想像,假設,推定,假定,認定,考慮,就…來說」邏輯推導的英語用法🔗 ←

as far as I know/understand = 就我所知/理解

as far as possible = 盡可能地

as far as sth goes 目前來說還算( 暗指程度上不算太多

as many as possible = 盡可能的多。

as much noun as possible = 盡可能的多。因 money 不可數,所以沒看到冠詞後移的狀況。

as soon as possible = 盡可能的快。 nasal spray flu vaccine 鼻噴霧式疫苗

as it stands = 就目前而言。和 now 不太一樣的地方是 as it stands 會暗指狀況不變的條件下 = if things continue the way they are now。(Ref.)

also known as = otherwise known as = aka = 也被稱為。注意 aka 僅適用於口說。

as is = 按現狀、按原樣。本句是指太陽能背板的回收不需要特別處理,就按原樣重新使用即可。Ref.

as such = 如同字面真正意義上的 = in the exact sense of the word. 。這個用法的 such 通常是指前一句提到的東西。然而,如果前一句沒提到什麼東西,那就是指前面那個字,所以意思才會變成「如同字面上的」。

at least + as Adj./Adv. as = 至少一樣的。本句第二個 as 後的原型是 as dogs are damaging to our wildlife。此句若省了重複與動詞會變成 as dogs to our wildlife 意思跑掉了,所以不可省。

so/as long as = 只要。masculine 男性主義

for as long as (what) it takes = 不管它要多久 這邊就真的是指時間長度,而不是「只要」

As vs Because / Since / For

當「因為」使用時,As / Since 的理由很明顯,是一種補充語氣的用法。例如 We should head back since/as it’s starting to rain. 至於 for 則是用於文學體,會搭配一些文藝的用語。例如 Abigail lowered her head and wept, for she knew her Tom was dead. 正常狀況,就使用 because / because of / owing to / due to 例如 The concert has been cancelled owing to lack of interest. 如果要強調順序,可使用 as a result of / as a consequence of / in the wake of。口語上則可以說 thanks to = because of。詳細可參考 → 英語描述「因為&結論&因此&結果」 ←

As vs When vs While

when / while / as 雖然中文的意思都是「當」,然而意思卻不太一樣。使用 when 會暗指前後因果關係。例如 When I open the refrigerator, the light comes on. 本句光線其實是在打開冰箱後出現的。使用 while 會強調同時間發生兩件事情。例如 I like to listen to music while I drive. 注意到,聽音樂與開車兩件事情同時間在發生。

when = 當/之後。注意!when 的意思帶有 after 的概念。

while = 正當。本句使用「進行式」,強調兩件事在同一個時間發生。沒有 after 的概念所以不使用 when。 avalanche = 雪崩

最後,也最奇怪的 as 會暗指意外。例如 I dropped my coffee cup as I was walking out of the coffee shop.。仔細觀查,本句確實是先走出咖啡店然後掉了咖啡杯,所以似乎使用 when 是可行的。然而,若使用了 when 會暗指其有因果關係,因此不建議。接下來考慮到咖啡杯掉的瞬間人正在走出咖啡店,也就是說使用 while 似乎也是可以的。然而,若使用了 while 那就是講者要強調同時發生這個概念。而什麼時後會需要強調時間呢?譬如上圖雪崩的新聞會有需要強調發生的時間,又當講者被問到「你掉咖啡杯時在做啥」才會需要強調時間。也因此也不建議此句使用 while。

(just) as = as soon as = 正當、一…就…。利用 just 強調那個當下。

此外,as / while 要不要用進行式隨便。然而 when 則不可接進行式,因為它內含時間前後的關係。讀者有時可能會看到分詞構句出現 When V-ing,這是因為當省掉主詞時,必需修改動詞時態。例如 When opening the refrigerator, I found it was empty.(因為省了主詞 I,所以要按分詞構句規則將 open 改成進行式)。

when = 當/之後。注意!when 的意思帶有 after 的概念。本例句中要求家長教小朋友在「開門之後」,要講什麼話。本句 when 後省略主詞 + ing。

while = 同時間。本句 while I drive 本身就是持需動作,不需要特別使用 ing 來強調。

while = 正當/同時間。描述兩件事在同一個時間發生。本句省略主詞加 ing。