Inclusion or Exclusion — 包含不包含?

包含的英語有:include, contain, involve, cover。而不含則是:exclude, except, preclude, apart from。後三者可參考 → Except — 用法詳解 & Prevent VS Preclude — 防止 + 排除 & Addition — 增加項目用語

Include or Exclude

The bill includes tax and service.
The price excludes local taxes.

包含 vs 不含

He says he doesn’t want to be included in the project.
Women are excluded from the club.

納入 vs 排除

include 最基本的意思是「包含&納入」,其中「納入」帶出一種「動作」的感覺,暗指原本不包含,所以需要「納入」。相反地,exclude 最基本的意思則是「不含&排除」,相同地「排除」帶有動作感,暗指原本應包含,然而卻被排除了。

Contain & Involve

Try to avoid foods which contain a lot of fat.
The second accident involved two cars and a lorry.

內含 vs 涉汲

contain 不帶動作時就等於 include 的包含。然而 contain 的包含物更小,所以翻成「內含」。involve 不帶動作時用於描述「事件」而不是 group,所以翻譯成「涉及」較為洽當。

contain … percent sth = 內含百分之…的…。因為 include 包含物較大,為某 group 的成員之一,所以在這個例句中宜使用 contain

How much liquid do you think this bottle contains?
I prefer teaching methods that actively involve students in learning.

盛裝 vs 使參與

這兩個字一樣有兩種帶動作感的意思。contain 暗指原本為空,能裝東西。而 involve 暗指原本不關某人的事,硬要使他們參與其中。

Exclusive or Inclusive

My rent is $700 a month inclusive (of bills).
Prices are exclusive of tax and delivery
I’ll be away from 20 to 31 May inclusive / exclusive.

最後一個例句 inclusive 指 20 與 31 號都含在內,總共 12 天。若寫成 exclusive 就如影片中解釋的一般,總共僅 10 天(因為 20/31 不含)。本字用法為「後置形容詞」,詳細可參考 → 後置形容詞 postnominal adjective ← 此外,這兩個字個別還有特殊的意思如下:

This room is for the exclusive use of guests.
Our aim is to create a fairer, more inclusive society.

exclusive = 專用的, 高檔的 = limited to only one person or group of people; expensive and only for people who are rich or of a high social class

inclusive = (團體或組織)可以包容各種人的 = An inclusive group or organization tries to include many different types of people and treat them all fairly and equally.

These schools thrive on an image of exclusivity.
You will need a thorough understanding of inclusivity of special education pupils.

exclusivity = 排外性,精英化 = the quality of being available only to a small number of people who are rich enough or considered good enough

inclusivity = 具有包容性 = the quality of trying to include many different types of people and treat them all fairly and equally

Exclude 替代用語

anything from … to = 從…到…。這個用法也可以帶出一堆東西,而且因為列舉的東西不是必要的,所以算是部份包。

「逗號加 anything from」和 including 一樣好用。注意到本圖例句裡利用 em dash 取代逗號,表達出更用力的轉折。

Examples for Inclusion

contain = 內含。特別注意,contain 暗指可能尚有其他東西。

contain = 內裝。此概念是 contain 獨有的。

include = 包含 = to contain (someone or something) in a group or as a part of something。注意到,在英英字典裡使用 contain 來解釋 include。這表示 contain 用途較多而 include 則是一個特殊的 contain 狀況,適用於描述 group。本圖例中,彩虹的七色是一個 group,而這個 group 不包含 Black。

Involve = 涉及

逗號加 including 是本字最常見的用法。圖例句中描述「在十五款裡,包含有兩款是 Trader Joe’s 的巧克力」。特別注意 include 暗指可能尚有其他東西。

include = 納入。

include sth in/into = 納入到

Examples for Exclusion

excluding = 除了

exclude = 不包含

逗號加 excluding 來做補述,是相當常見的用法

Exclude = 排除。本句是把某些人排除在可以做某些事的人群之外。

Exclude = 排除。本句注意到,此時的排除理由是由 icy body 造成的這個假設被某個觀察否定了,因此變的不重要,所以排除它的可能性。Tunguska Event = 通古斯大爆炸。

not exclude = 不排除